Ichipululu and Environmental education team from university of Zambia was part of the team that was invented at American Embassy in Lusaka for a film documentary on poaching last Wednesday 18th 2018.

There are two general categories of anti-poaching policies. The first encompasses anti-poaching efforts and programs that target the actual slaughter of animals. This includes anti-poaching patrols, state and internationally driven coercive measures that try to identify and track down poachers, restricting access to vulnerable areas, designating national parks etc. What unites these measures is the strategy of confronting poachers by either directly seeking them out or by limiting their access to endangered species populations.

These efforts can be seen as a more straightforward way of safeguarding populations at risk.

Demand for ivory can be targeted as well. Perhaps raising awareness across the continent and the whole world will prove to be more effective than coercive measures. If the links between ivory products, the slaughter of animals, and the extinction of elephant species are clearly demonstrated to the buyers of ivory products, they might be less eager to engage in the trade.

A major problem that both types of anti-poaching policies share is a lack of information. First, there is a deficit of data about the temporal and spatial distribution of elephant poaching, critical to plan and carry out effective anti-poaching programs.

In Central Africa, the vast forest cover requires a means to prioritize where protection is most needed or would be most effective, and this requires knowing the hotspots of poaching activity, and where and when elephants are most vulnerable.

Second, before policies can be reproduced on a large scale, their effectiveness should be assessed. This can be just as challenging as planning the policies themselves. Here, too, the main problem is a lack of information. To evaluate anti-poaching efforts, there needs to be reliable, consistent monitoring of illegal human activities and elephant populations and this can be extremely difficult to maintain.

There are also questions concerning the general structure of anti-poaching efforts. Should these policies be directed by a central state authority, or would an international effort that transcends national borders be more appropriate?  Alternatively, perhaps it is best to engage and rely on local communities, with the expectation that indigenous knowledge and a sense of belonging will supply what central government cannot. This case study took place in an area of great political, socioeconomic and cultural diversity.

The anti-poaching project involved multiple agents of enforcement, including the local community, and a wider range of tactics. This collaborative strategy appeared much more effective than traditional measures. Other research suggests that relying on local populations might be risky, as poachers themselves often come from those same communities.

Our ancestors have been hunting for around 400,000 years. In the past, hunting has played an important role in leadership and community formation. Before the agricultural revolution (around 10,000 years ago), primitive humans relied on the hunting of food for survival, however since the agricultural revolution, the need for hunting has reduced majorly in most parts of the world.

Despite this, poaching and hunting still both remain an important part of culture and the economy, where ever in the world they occur. For example: animal products like, horn, ivory, bone, and teeth, are sold to people who use these materials to produce/make jewelry, and clothes.

Some animals are poached because people want to stop them from encroaching on farms, and poaching is also a sport for some people. Although poaching is mostly under control, the illegal poaching of many  of animals is leading to mass extinction of some species of animals.

Poaching has negative side effects that can have an effect on local communities, wildlife populations and the environment. There are many devastating effects on animals, with extinction the greatest threat to animals that are victims to poaching.

In 2011 the IUNC (international Union for the Conservation of Nature) declared that the Western Black Rhinos were extinct, since that specific species is extinct the sub species of the black Rhino was poached instead. Poaching is more lucrative than other jobs available in the region; this is a tough reality faced by many people in these communities.

There are also many effects that occur in local communities due to wildlife poaching. The poaching of animals can have a negative economic effect on the community’s tourism industry, this can be a devastating effect for a community that relies on wildlife to attract tourists. Furthermore, poaching also has effects on the environment.

Our ecosystems are extremely sensitive, and when a local community has economic challenges it can lead to poaching, which can then lead to the endangerment or even the extinction of another species.

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